Medical Advocates

idovudine (Retrovir)
Perinatal Data
New and Noteworthy
Animal; Studies
General Reports
Adverse Events
Patient Perceptions


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Last Update:  August 25, 2017  
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New and Noteworthy

August  2017

Animal Studies

         Journal Papers, Abstracts, and Commentaries
  Mitochondrial Damage Revealed by Morphometric and Semiquantitative Analysis
of Mouse Pup Cardiomyocytes Following in Utero and Postnatal Exposure to
Zidovudine and Lamivudine.
Bishop JB, Tani Y, Witt K, et al.
Toxicol Sci.
2004 Jun 30

General Reports/Reviews

        Journal Papers, Abstracts, and Commentaries

High plasma concentrations of zidovudine (AZT) do not parallel intracellular concentrations of AZT-triphosphates in infants during prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission.
Kinai E, Kato S, Hosokawa S, S
adatsuki M, et al
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr
. 2016 Feb 8

Role of ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCC2 and ABCC5 transporters in placental passage of zidovudine.
Neumanova Z, Cerveny L, Ceckova M, Staud F.
Biopharm Drug Dispos
. 2015 Sep 21.

 The changes in bone organic and inorganic matrix in newborn rats after maternal application of antiretroviral agents: Indinavir and zidovudine.
Maciejewska K, Drzazga Z, Kaszuba M.
. 2015 May 6;41(3):198-208. d

Economic Evaluation of 3-Drug Antiretroviral Regimens for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission in Thailand.
Werayingyong P, Phanuphak N, Chokephaibulkit K, wt al
Asia Pac J Public Health. 2013 May 30

Is Intrapartum Intravenous Zidovudine for Mother-to-Child HIV-1 Transmission Still Useful in the cART Era?
Briand N, Warszawski J, Mandelbrot L, et al
Clin Infect Dis
. 2013 May 31


High exposure to zidovudine during the two first weeks of life and concentration - toxicity relationships.
Hirt D, Warszawski J, Firtion G, Giraud C,
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr
. 2013 Mar 11.

Maternal CD4+ Cell Count Decline after Interruption of Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for the Prevention of
Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV.
Ekouevi D, Abrams EJ, Schlesinger M, et al
PLoS One
. 2012;7(8):e43750.

Zidovudine Exposure in HIV-1 Infected Tanzanian Women Increases Mitochondrial DNA Levels in Placenta and Umbilical Cords.
Kunz A, von Wurmb-Schwark N, Sewangi J, et al  
PLoS One
. 2012;7(7):e41637

Effects of short-course zidovudine on the selection of nevirapine-resistant HIV-1 in women taking single-dose nevirapine.
Micek MA, Blanco AJ, Carlsson J,  et al
J Infect Dis
. 2012 Apr 5.

Perinatal zidovudine prophylaxis in HIV type-1-infected pregnant women with thalassaemia carriage in Thailand.
Briand N, Pornprasert S, Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Galactéros F  
Antivir Ther
. 2009;14(1):117-22.

Factors associated with zidovudine receipt and prenatal care among HIV-infected pregnant women in New Jersey.
Abatemarco DJ, Catov JM, Cross H, et al 
J Health Care Poor Underserved.
2008 Aug;19(3):814-28.
High levels of AZT and its intracellular phosphate metabolites in AZT and
AZT/3TC-treated newborns of HIV-infected mothers.

Durand-Gasselin L, Pruvost A, et al  
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Apr 21

AZT Availability in Illinois Birthing Hospitals: Is the Perinatal HIV Prevention Safety Net in

Eary RL, Borders AE, Handler A, et al
Matern Child Health J. 2007 Jan 23

HIV Infection and Zidovudine Use in Childbearing Women.
Sia J, Paul S, Martin RM, Cross H.
2004 Nov 15


Determinants of mother-to-infant human immunodeficiency virus 1 transmission before and
after the introduction of zidovudine prophylaxis
The Italian Register for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Children
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002 Sep;156(9):915-2


Zidovudine: A Review of its Use in the Management of Vertically-Acquired Pediatric
HIV infection.
Bhana N,Ormrod D, Perry CM, et al.
Paediatr Drugs 2002;4(8):515-53


        Conference Reports, Abstracts, and Posters


HIV-1 viral kinetics among in utero and intrapartum-infected infants in NICHD HPTN 040/ PACTG 1043
K. Nielsen-Saines, Y. Bryson, D.H. Watts,et al|
(XIX International AIDS Conference)

Body weight evolution in HIV-positive patients over two years of antiretroviral treatment: a multiregional analysis of the IeDEA collaboration
D. Huis in 't Veld, E. Balestre, J. Menten, et al
(XIX International AIDS Conference)

The HIV NRTI BMS-986001 does not degrade mitochondrial DNA in long term primary cultures of cells isolated from human kidney, muscle and subcutaneous fat
F. Wang, O. Flint
(XIX International AIDS Conference)


  Maternal and fetal zidovudine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and labor: too high dose infused at labor?
Fauchet F, Treluyer JM, Valade E, et al
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Jul 9.


Pharmacokinetics of Zidovudine Dosed Twice Daily According to World Health Organization Weight Bands in Ugandan HIV-infected Children.
Fillekes Q, Kendall L, Kitaka S, Mugyenyi P,  et al
Pediatr Infect Dis J
. 2014 May;33(5):495-498.

Pharmacokinetics and tolerance of zidovudine in preterm infants.
Capparelli EV, Mirochnick M, Dankner WM, et al
J Pediatr 2003 Jan;142(1):47-52

Pharmacokinetics of zidovudine in infants: a population analysis across studies.
Mirochnick M, Capparelli E, Connor
J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999 Jul;66(1):16-24  



        Journal Papers, Abstracts, and Commentaries

Haematological Safety of Perinatal Zidovudine in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women in Thailand:
Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Trial.

Briand N, Lallemant M, Jourdain G, et al
PLoS Clin Trials.
2007 Apr 27

Safety of late in utero exposure to zidovudine in infants born to human Collaborativ
Perinatal HIV Transmission Study Group

Chotpitayasunondh T, Vanprapar N, Simonds RJ, et al.
Pediatrics 2001 Jan;107(1):E5 


  Safety of the maternal-infant zidovudine regimen utilized in the Pediatric AIDS
Clinical Trial Group 076 study
Sperling RS, Shapiro DE, McSherry GD, et al.
AIDS 1998; 12:1805- 1813



        Journal Papers, Abstracts, and Commentaries

Antiretroviral Resistance Patterns and HIV-1 Subtype in Mother-Infant Pairs after the
Administration of Combination Short-Course Zidovudine plus Single-Dose Nevirapine
for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV.
Chalermchockcharoenkit A, Culnane M, Chotpitayasunondh T, et al 
Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Jun 12

Lower Risk of Resistance After Short-Course HAART Compared With Zidovudine/Single-Dose Nevirapine
Used for Prevention of HIV-1 Mother-to-Child Transmission.
Lehman DA, Chung MH, Mabuka JM, et al
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Jun 4


HIV Type 1 Zidovudine (ZDV) Resistance in Blood and Uterine Cervical Secretions of Pregnant
Frenkel LM, McKernan J, Dinh PV, et al
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses.
2006 Sep;22(9):870-3

Lack of resistant mutation development after receiving short-course zidovudine plus
lamivudine to prevent mother-to-child transmission.
Chokephaibulkit K, Chaisilwattana P, Vanprapar N, et al 
AIDS. 2005 Jul 22;19(11):1231-3.
Zidovudine Resistance Phenotype and Risk of Perinatal HIV-1 Transmission in Zidovudine
Monotherapy-Treated Mothers With Moderately Advanced Disease.
Bauer GR, Welles SL, Colgrove RR, et al 
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003 Nov 1;34(3):312-9.

Zidovudine genotypic resistance in HIV-1-infected newborns in the French perinatal

Masquelier B, Chaix ML, Burgard M, et al. Pediatric HIV Infection Study Group.
J Acquir Immune  Defic Syndr 2001 Jun 1;27(2):99-104


HIV-1 genotypic zidovudine drug resistance and the risk of maternal-infant transmission
in the women and infants transmission study. The Women and Infants Transmission Study
Welles SL, Pitt J, Colgrove R, et al;
2000 Feb 18;14(3):263-71

Maternal viral genotypic zidovudine resistance and Infrequent failure of zidovudine therapy
 to prevent perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type I in pediatric AIDS
Clinical Trials Group protocol 076.
Eastman PS, Shapiro DE, Coombs RW,
et al.  
J Infect Dis


Adverse Events

        Journal Papers, Abstracts, and Commentaries

Higher Transplacental Pathogen-Specific Antibody Transfer Among Pregnant Women Randomized to Triple Antiretroviral Treatment Versus Short Course Zidovudine.
Bosire R, Farquhar C, Nduati R,  et al
Pediatr Infect Dis
. 2017 Aug 19.

Zidovudine use in pregnancy and congenital malformations: meta-analysis and Bayesian incorporation of Medicaid data.
Rough K, Sun JW, Seage GR 3rd,  et al  
AIDS. 2017 May 23.

Zidovudine treatment in HIV-infected pregnant women is associated with fetal cardiac remodelling.
García-Otero L, López M,  Sitges M,  et al
AIDS. 2016 Feb 25.

Prenatal exposure to zidovudine and risk for ventricular septal defects and congenital heart defects: data from the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry.
Vannappagari V, Albano JD, Koram N,  
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol
. 2015 Nov 24;197:6-10.

Risk factors of preterm delivery in HIV-infected pregnant women receiving zidovudine for the
prevention of perinatal HIV.

Traisathit P, Mary JY, Le Coeur S,  et al
J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2009 Apr;35(2):225-33.

Placental transfer of Zidovudine in first trimester of pregnancy.
Siu SS, Yeung JH, Pang MW, et al
Obstet Gynecol.
2005 Oct;106(4):824-7.

3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) induces apoptosis and alters metabolic enzyme activity in
human placenta.
Collier AC, Helliwell RJ, Keelan JA
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2003 Oct 15;192(2):164-73

Absence of cardiac toxicity of zidovudine in infants. Pediatric  Pulmonary and Cardiac
Complications of Vertically Transmitted HIV Infection Study Group
Lipshultz SE, Easley KA, Orav EJ, et al.  
N Engl J Med 2000 Sep 14;343(11):759-66


  Risk factors for preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation in
infants born to HIV-infected pregnant women receiving zidovudine. Pediatric AIDS Clinical
Trials Group 185 Team.

Lambert JS, Watts DH, Mofenson L, Stiehm ER, et al. 
AIDS 2000 Jul 7;14(10):1389-99
Lack of Long-term Effects of In Utero Exposure to Zidovudine Among Uninfected Children
Born to HIV-Infected Women.
Culnane M, Fowler M, Lee SS, et al.
1999 Jan 13;281(2):151-7

  The Ariel Project: A Prospective Cohort Study of Maternal-Child Transmission of Human
Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in the Era of Maternal Antiretroviral Therapy

Van Dyke RB, Korber BT, Popek E, et al. 
J Infect Dis
1999 Feb;179(2):319-28


        Conference Reports, Abstracts and Posters

idovudine exposure during pregnancy and hypospadias in infants: data from the antiretroviral pregnancy registry, 1989-2011
V. Vannappagari, S. Roberts, H. Tilson, et al

(XIX International AIDS Conference)
Abstract     Poster

High HbA2 due to zidovudine exposure: implication for β-thalassemia trait screening
P. Kosalaraksa, S. Wiangnon, T. Bunupuradah, et al|
(XIX International AIDS Conference)

Patient Perceptions/Knowledge/Attitudes

       Journal Papers, Abstracts, and Commentaries

Concerns and experiences of women participating in a short-term AZT intervention
feasibility study for prevention of HIV transmission from mother-to-child.
Mawar N, Joshi PL, Sahay S, Bagul RD, Paranjape RS.
Cult Health Sex.
2007 Mar-Apr;9(2):199-207.

Factors associated with HIV-infected women's use or intention to use AZT during
Siegel K, Lekas HM, Schrimshaw EW, Johnson JK.
AIDS Educ Prev 2001 Jun;13(3):189-206 



        Journal Papers, Abstracts, and Commentaries

  Prenatal and postpartum zidovudine adherence among pregnant women with HIV: results
of a MEMS substudy from the Perinatal Guidelines Evaluation Project.
Ickovics JR, Wilson TE, Royce RA, et al.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002 Jul 1;30(3):311-5
        Conference Reports, Abstracts and Posters
  Adherence patterns seen among HIV pregnant women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and on combination zidovudine/sdNVP prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), in the Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda
J. Nabweteme-Mugerwa, Z. Namukwaya, E. Namara-Lugolobi, , et al
XIX International AIDS Conference)

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Zidovudine Perinatal Data