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Z
idovudine (Retrovir)
 
Journal Citations
 
General Reports            Therapeutic Strategies        
Animal Studies               Pharmacoeconomics  
Delivery Systems                  
Formulations
Diagnostics
Oncology Studies
Pharmacokinetics
Drug/Drug Interactions
Resistance
Adverse Events
Efficacy
Adolescent/Adult Treatment

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Last Update:  March 21, 2018
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General Reports
       

 

Zidovudine protects hyperosmolarity-stressed human corneal epithelial cells via antioxidant pathway.
Liu H, Gambino F Jr., Algenio C,et al
iochem Biophys Res Commun
. 2018 Mar 16

Abstract

Calorimetric and spectroscopic studies of the interaction between zidovudine and human serum albumin.
Prnău A, Mic M, Neamţu S,  et al
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2017 Oct 10;
Abstract

Evaluation of in-vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake efficiency of zidovudine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles modified with Aloe Vera in glioma cells.
K S J, Sharma CP, Kalarikkal N, Sandeep K, et al

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
. 2016 Sep 1;66:40-50.
Abstract

Amperometric sensing of anti-HIV drug zidovudine on Ag nanofilm-multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode.
Rafati AA, Afraz A.Mater
Sci Eng C Mater Biol A
ppl
. 2014 Jun 1;39:105-12.
Abstract

Brain Uptake of a Zidovudine Prodrug after Nasal Administration of Solid Lipid Microparticles.
Dalpiaz A, Ferraro L, Perrone D, et al.
Mol Pharm
. 2014 Apr 9.
Abstract

FULL-TEXT ARTICLE
Exposure of Allium cepa Root Cells to Zidovudine or Nevirapine Induces Cytogenotoxic Changes.
Onwuamah CK, Ekama SO, Audu RA, et al
PLoS One. 2014 Mar 5;9(3):e90296.
Paper

Differential gene expression in human hepatocyte cell lines exposed to the antiretroviral agent zidovudine.
Fang JL, Han T, Wu Q, et al
Arch Toxicol
. 2013 Nov 30.
Abstract

Haemoglobin recovery among HIV-1 infected patients on zidovudine-based antiretroviral therapy and other regimens in north-central Nigeria.
Parrish DD, Blevins M, Megazzini KM,  et al
Int J STD AIDS
. 2013 Oct 8.
Abstract

Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) Values Reflect Therapeutic Effectiveness in Zidovudine-Receiving HIV Patients.
Kim AH, Jang W, Kim Y,  et al

J Clin Lab Anal
. 2013 Sep;27(5):373-8.
Abstract

FULL-TEXT ARTICLE
AZT as a telomerase inhibitor.

Gomez DE, Armando RG, Alonso DF.
Front Oncol. 2012;2:113.
Paper

N348I in HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Counteracts the Synergy Between Zidovudine and Nevirapine.
Huey Yap S, Herman BD, Radzio J,  et al
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Jun 27.
Abstract

Regional Anthropometry Changes in Antiretroviral-nave Persons Initiating a Zidovudine-containing Regimen in Mbarara, Uganda.
Thompson V, Medard B, Taseera K,  et al
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses
. 2010 Dec 5.
Abstract

Antiviral Activity of Zidovudine and Tenofovir in the Presence of the K65R Mutationin Reverse Transcriptase: An International Cohort Analysis.
Grant PM, Taylor J, Nevins AB, et al  
Antimicrob Agents Chemother
. 2010 Feb 1.
Abstract

Durability of initial antiretroviral therapy in a resource-constrained setting and the potential need for Zidovudine weight-based dosing.
Willig JH, Echevarria J, Westfall AO, et al
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Feb 1;53(2):215-21.
Abstract

Durability of Initial Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource Constrained Setting and the Potential Need for Zidovudine Weight-Based Dosing.
Willig JH, Echevarria J, Westfall AO, et al
 
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Sep 30.
Abstract

Development of an optimized dose for coformulation of zidovudine with drugs that select for the K65R mutation using a population pharmacokinetic and enzyme kinetic simulation model.
Hurwitz SJ, Asif G, Kivel NM, Schinazi RF. 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Dec;52(12):4241-50
Abstract
 

Inhibition of cation channels and suicidal death of human erythrocytes by zidovudine.
Kucherenko Y, Geiger C, Shumilina E, et aL
Toxicology. 2008 Sep 4.
Abstract
 
Development of an Optimized Dose for Co-formulation of Zidovudine with Drugs that Select for the K65R Mutation Using a Population Pharmacokinetic and Enzyme Kinetic Simulation Model.
Hurwitz SJ, Asif G, Kivel NM, Schinazi RF .
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Oct 6.
Abstract
 
Zidovudine impairs adipogenic differentiation through inhibition of clonal expansion.
Stankov MV, Schmidt RE, Behrens GM;, et al
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 May 12
Abstract
 
Food affects Zidovudine concentration independent of effects on gastrointestinal absorption.
Ndovi TT, Cao YJ, Fuchs E, et al 
J Clin Pharmacol.
2007 Nov;47(11):1366-73
Abstract
 
HIV-1 and HIV-2 Exhibit Comparable Sensitivity to AZT and Other Nucleoside Analog Inhibitors
In Vitro. Smith RA, Gottlieb GS, Anderson DJ, et al
 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother.
2007 Oct 29;
Abstract 

Concentrations of zidovudine- and lamivudine-triphosphate according to cell type in HIV-seronegative adults.
Anderson PL, Zheng JH, King T, et al
AIDS. 2007 Sep;21(14):1849-54.

Abstract 


Animal Studies
       

 

Zidovudine induces visceral mitochondrial toxicity and intraabdominal fat gain in a rodent model of lipodystrophy.
Walker UA, Lebrecht D, Reichard W,  et al
Antivir Ther
. 2014 Feb 28.
Abstract 

Effects of combined zidovudine/lopinavir/ritonavir therapy during rat pregnancy: morphological aspects.
de Carvalho LP, Simes RS, Wagner A, et al
Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2013;40(3):345-9.
Abstract 

FULL-TEXT PDF ARTICLE
An unusual phenotypic and genotypic expression in F2 generation following one stage zidovudine exposure during pregnancy and lactation- an experiment in mice.
Rajlakshmi C, Roy JK, Rai AK,  et al  
J Toxicol Sci
. 2012;37(1):51-61
Paper

Cycle arrest and aneuploidy induced by zidovudine in murine embryonic stem cells.
Campos PB, Sartore RC, Ramalho BL, et al
Mutagenesis
. 2012 Jan 4.
Abstract 

Neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to AZT: a preliminary investigation with the D1 receptor agonist SKF 38393 in mice.
Venerosi A, Valanzano A, Puopolo M, Calamandrei G.
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2005 Jan-Feb;27(1):169-173.
Abstract 


Pharmacokinetics
       

 

Kinetics of HIV-1 in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum After Zidovudine Treatment
Hagberg L, Gisslen M, Norkrans G, Svennerholm B. et al;  
J NeuroAIDS. 1999;2(2):29-35.
Abstract 


Delivery Systems
       

 
Transdermal delivery of zidovudine: effect of terpenes and their mechanism of action.
Narishetty ST, Panchagnula R 
J Control Release. 2004 Mar 24;95(3):367-79.
Abstract 

Transdermal delivery system for zidovudine: in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo evaluation.
Narishetty ST, Panchagnula R.
Biopharm Drug Dispos.
2004 Jan;25(1):9-20
Abstract 


Formulations
       

 
Comparative bioavailability study of zidovudine administered as two different tablet formulations in healthy adult subjects.
Marier JF, Manthos H, Kebir S, et al 
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 May;44(5):240-6.

Abstract 

Diagnostics
       

 
Ultrasensitive method to quantify intracellular zidovudine mono-, di- and triphosphate concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Kinai E, Gatanaga H, Kikuchi Y, et al
J Mass Spectrom
. 2015 Jun;50(6):ii.
Abstract 

Quantitative analysis of the effect of zidovudine, efavirenz, and ritonavir on insulin aggregation by multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares of infrared spectra.
Mart-Aluja I, Ruisnchez I, Larrechi MS.
Anal Chim Acta. 2013 Jan 14;760:16-24
Abstract 

Simultaneous determination of lamivudine, lopinavir, ritonavir, and zidovudine concentration in plasma of HIV-infected patients by HPLC-MS/MS.
Notari S, Sergi M, Montesano C, Ivanovic J,  et al
IUBMB Life. 2012 Apr 4.
Abstract

Improved method to quantify intracellular zidovudine mono- and triphosphate in peripheral bloodmononuclear cells by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Compain S, Durand-Gasselin L, Grassi J, Benech H.
J Mass Spectrom. 2007 Jan 22
Abstract 
 

A simple and rapid liquid chromatography method for simultaneous determination of zidovudine and nevirapine  in plasma.
Ramachandran G, Hemanthkumar AK, Kumaraswami V, Swaminathan S.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci
. 2006 Jun 30
Abstract 
 
A novel rearrangement in electrospray ionization multistage tandem mass spectrometry of amino acid ester cyclohexyl phosphoramidates of AZT.
Chen Y, Yin Y, Sun X, et al 
J Mass Spectrom.
2005 Feb 15;
Abstract 

Evaluation of DNA adduction of AZT in peripheral blood leukocytes of HIV-infected individuals by 32)P-post-labeling thin-layer chromatography: a feasibility study.
Huang JM, Anastos K, Robison E, et al 
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004 Oct 15;810(1):1-6.
Abstract 


Oncology Indications
       

  Phase I study of cisdiamminedichloroplatinum in combination with azidothymidine in the treatment of patients with advanced malignancies.
Morgan RJ Jr, Newman EM, Sowers L, et al.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol
2003 Apr 15
Abstract 
 

Pharmacokinetics
       

FULL-TEXT ARTICLE
Steady-state pharmacokinetics of zidovudine in Chinese HIV-infected patients.
Liu LF, Wang L, Fu Q,
Chin Med J (Engl). 2012 Jun;125(11):1931-5

Paper

Pharmacokinetics of Generic Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors in TB/HIV-Coinfected Ghanaian Patients: UGT2B7*1c Is Associated With Faster Zidovudine Clearance and Glucuronidation.
Kwara A, Lartey M, Boamah I, et al 
J Clin Pharmacol
. 2009 Jul 23
Abstract 

In vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic characterization of two novel prodrugs of zidovudine.
Quevedo MA, Brin MC.
Antiviral Res. 2009 Aug;83(2):103-11.
Abstract 


Zidovudine induces S-phase arrest and cell cycle gene expression changes in
human cells.
Olivero OA, Tejera AM, Fernandez JJ, et al
 
Mutagenesis. 2005 Mar 22;
Abstract 
 
AZT Binds RNA at Multiple Sites.
Ahmed Ouameur A, Marty R, Neault JF, Tajmir-Riahi HA. 
DNA Cell Biol.
2004 Nov;23(11):783-8.
Abstract 

Azidodeoxythymidine and didehydrodeoxythymidine as inhibitors and substrates of the human herpesvirus 8 thymidine kinase. 
Lock MJ, Thorley N, Teo J, Emery VC.
J Antimicrob Chemother 2002 Feb;49(2):359-366

Abstract 
   
  FULL-TEXT ARTICLE
Multiple-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Abacavir Alone and in Combination with Zidovudine in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults
McDowell JA, Lou Y, Symonds WS, Stein DS.

Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
2000 44: 2061-2067
Paper
 
Kinetics of HIV-1 in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum After Zidovudine Treatment
Hagberg L, Gisslen M, Norkrans G, Svennerholm B. et al;  

J NeuroAIDS.
1999;2(2):29-35.
Abstract 

Drug/Drug Interactions
       

 
Adverse events caused by drug interactions involving glucuronoconjugates of zidovudine, valproic acid and lamotrigine, and analysis of how such potential events are discussed
in package inserts of Japan, UK and USA.

Hirata-Koizumi M, Saito M, Miyake S, Hasegawa R.
 
J Clin Pharm Ther
. 2007 Apr;32(2):177-85.
Abstract
 
Severe anemia secondary to a probable drug interaction between zidovudine and valproic acid.
Antoniou T, Gough K, Yoong D, Arbess G.et al 
Clin Infect Dis.
2004 Mar 1;38(5):e38-4
Abstract

Prophylactic clarithromycin to treat mycobacterium avium in HIV patients receiving zidovudine may significantly increase mortality by suppressing lymphopoiesis and
hematopoiesis.
Freund YR, Dousman L, Mohagheghpour N.
 
Int Immunopharmacol 2002 Sep;2(10):1465-75
Abstract 

 
     
  FULL-TEXT ARTICLE
Pharmacological Basis for Concentration-Controlled Therapy with Zidovudine, Lamivudine, and Indinavir
Kakuda TN, Page LM, Anderson PL, et al
.
Antimicrob  Agents  Chemother 2001 Jan;45(1); 236-242 
Paper
 

Resistance
       

 
Rapid accumulation of HIV-1 thymidine analogue mutations and phenotypic impact following prolonged viral failure on zidovudine-based first-line ART in sub-Saharan Africa.
Goodall RL, Dunn DT, Nkurunziza P,  et al
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2017 Feb 4
Abstract 

FULL-TEXT ARTICLE
Zidovudine (AZT) Monotherapy Selects for the A360V Mutation in the Connection Domain of  HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase.
Brehm JH, Scott Y, Koontz DL, et al
PLoS One
. 2012;7(2):e31558
Paper

Higher levels of Zidovudine resistant HIV in the colon compared to blood and other gastrointestinal compartments in HIV infection.
v
an Marle G, Church DL, Nunweiler KD,  et al
Retrovirology
. 2010 Sep 13;7(1):74
Abstract

Rate of Accumulation of Thymidine Analogue Mutations in Patients Continuing to Receive Virologically Failing Regimens Containing Zidovudine or Stavudine: Implications for Antiretroviral Therapy Programs in Resource-Limited Settings.
Cozzi-Lepri A, Phillips AN, Martinez-Picado J,  et al
J Infect Dis
. 2009 Jul 15.
Abstract

FULL TEXT ARTICLE
N348I in the Connection Domain of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Confers Zidovudine and Nevirapine Resistance.
Yap SH, Sheen CW, Fahey J, et al 

PLoS Med.
2007 Dec 1;4(12):e335
Paper
 

Mechanisms by which G333D in HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Facilitates Dual Resistance to Zidovudine and Lamivudine
Zelina S, Sheen CW, Radzio J, et al

Antimicrob Agents Chemother.
2007 Oct 29;
Abstract
 
FULL-TEXT ARTICLE
Why Do HIV-1 and HIV-2 Use Different Pathways to Develop AZT Resistance?
Boyer PL, Sarafianos SG, Clark PK, et al

PLoS Pathog.
2006 Feb 17;2(2):e10
Paper

 
Effect of the Q207D Mutation in HIV Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase on Zidovudine Susceptibility and Replicative Fitness.
Lu J, Whitcomb J, Kuritzkes DR.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.
2005 Sep 1;40(1):20-23.
Abstract
 
Natural resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 to zidovudine.
Reid P, Macinnes H, Cong ME, et al 
Virology.
2005 Jun 5;336(2):251-64.
Abstract
 
Primer unblocking by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and resistance to nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs).
Goldschmidt V, Marquet R.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004 Sep;36(9):1687-705.
Abstract
 
Rate of Thymidine Analogue Resistance Mutation Accumulation With Zidovudine- or Stavudine-Based Regimens.
For the Adult ACTG Protocol 306 370 Teams. 
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.
2004 Apr 20;36(1):600-603.
Abstract
 
FULL-TEXT PDF ARTICLE
Nonnucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibit phosphorolysis and resensitize the 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT)-resistant polymerase to AZTTP.
Odriozola L, Cruchaga C, Andreola M, et al.

J Biol Chem.
2003 Aug 13
Paper
 
Probing the Molecular Mechanisms of AZT Drug Resistance Mediated by HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Using a Transient Kinetic Analysis.
Ray AS, Murakami E, Basavapathruni A, et al 
Biochemistry. 2003 Jul 29;42(29):8831-8841.
Abstract
 
Sustained high proportion of zidovudine-resistant HIV variants despite prolonged substitution of zidovudine by other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Belec L, Legoff J, Si-Mohamed A, et al.

J Med Virol 2002 Sep;68(1):1-6
Abstract 

Correlation of Phenotypic Zidovudine Resistance with Mutational Patterns in the Reverse Transcriptase of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: Interpretation of Established Mutations and Characterization of New Polymorphisms at Codons
208, 211, and 214.

Sturmer M, Staszewski S, Doerr HW, et al.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003 Jan;47(1):54-61
Abstract 

Sustained high proportion of zidovudine-resistant HIV variants despite prolonged substitution of zidovudine by other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Belec L, Legoff J, Si-Mohat al.

J
Med Virol 2002 Sep;68(1):1-6
Abstract 
 
Carrier rate of zidovudine-resistant HIV-1: the impact of failing therapy on transmission of resistant strains.
Goudsmit J, Weverling GJ, van Der Hoek L, et al

AIDS
2001 Nov 23;15(17):2293-2301
Abstract 
 
Tenofovir, Adefovir, and Zidovudine Susceptibilities of Primary Human  immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolates with Non-B Subtypes or Nucleoside
Resistance.
Palmer S, Margot N, Gilbert H, et al.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses
2001 Aug 10;17(12):1167-1173
Abstract 
 
FULL-TEXT ARTICLE
Delavirdine in Combination with Zidovudine in Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients: Evaluation of Efficacy and Emergence of Viral Resistance in a Randomized, Comparative Phase III Trial
Joly V, Moroni M, Concia E, et al.

Antimicrob Agents
Chemother
2000 Nov;44(11):3155-3157
Paper

 

Efficacy
       

 
Is Zidovudine 1st line therapy virologically comparable to Tenofovir in resource-limited settings?
Labhardt ND, Bader J, Lejone TI, et al
Trop Med Int Health
. 2015 Mar 1
Abstract

AZT impairs immunological recovery on first-line ART: collaborative analysis of cohort studies in Southern Africa.
Wandeler G, Gsponer T, Mulenga L, et al
AIDS. 2013 May 8.
Abstract

Stavudine or zidovudine in three-drug combination therapy for initial treatment of HIV infection in antiretroviral-nave individuals.
Spaulding A, Rutherford GW, Siegfried N.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
. 2010 Aug 4;8:CD008651
Abstract

Intensification of a Failing Regimen with Zidovudine May Cause Sustained Virological Suppression in the Presence of Resensitising Mutations Including K65R.
Stephan C, Dauer B, Bickel M,  et al
J Infect. 2010 Jun 19
Abstract

Evaluation of a Systematic Substitution of Zidovudine for Stavudine-Based HAART in a Program Settingin Rural Cambodia.
Isaakidis P, Raguenaud ME, Phe T, et al
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.
2008 Jul 23.
Abstract
 

Food affects Zidovudine concentration independent of effects on gastrointestinal absorption.
Ndovi TT, Cao YJ, Fuchs E, et al 

J Clin Pharmacol.
2007 Nov;47(11):1366-73
Abstract
 
Pharmacodynamic effects of zidovudine 600 mg once/day versus 300 mg twice/day in therapy-naive patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
Ruane PJ, Richmond GJ, DeJesus E, et al 
Pharmacotherapy
. 2004 Mar;24(3):307-12.
Abstract
 
The prevalence of reduced zidovudine susceptibility in zidovudine-naive, antiretroviral-experienced HIV-1-infected patients.
Gilleece Y, Torti C, Mandalia S, et al 
HIV Med. 2003 Oct;4(4):305-10.
Abstract

Short-Term Effect of Zidovudine on Plasma and Genital Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Viral Turnover in These Compartments.
Mbori-Ngacha D, Richardson BA, Overbaugh J, et al
J Virol. 2003
Jul 1;77(13):7702-7705.

Abstract

 

  FULL-TEXT ARTICLE
Delavirdine in Combination with Zidovudine in Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients: Evaluation of Efficacy and Emergence of Viral Resistance in a Randomized, Comparative Phase III Trial
Joly V, Moroni M, Concia E, et al.
Antimicrob Agents
Chemother 2000 Nov;44(11):3155-3157

Paper

Adverse Events
       

 
Metabolic syndrome in patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy containing zidovudine or tenofovir in rural Lesotho, Southern Africa.
Labhardt ND, Mller UF, Ringera I, et al
Trop Med Int Health. 2017 Mar 25
Abstract

Zidovudine-induced nail hyper-pigmentation in 45-year-old women prescribed for HIV/tuberculosis co-infection.
Tandon VR, Sadiq S, Khajuria V,
J Midlife Health. 2016 Jan-Mar;7(1):38-40
Abstract

FULL-TEXT ARTICLE
Neurotoxic effects of AZT on developing and adult neurogenesis.
Demir M, Laywell ED.
Front Neurosci
. 2015 Mar 2;9:93.
Paper

High Incidence of Zidovudine Induced Anaemia in HIV Infected Patients in Southern Odisha.
Dash KR, Meher LK, Hui PK,et al
Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus
. 2015 Jun;31(2):247-5
Abstract

Development of Severe Anemia and Changes in Hemoglobin in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Ugandan Adults Receiving Zidovudine-, Stavudine-, and Tenofovir-Containing Antiretroviral Regimens.
Parkes-Ratanshi R, Katende D,  et al
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2014 Nov 25
Abstract

FULL-TEXT PDF ARTICLE
Maternal anaemia and duration of zidovudine in antiretroviral regimens for preventing mother-to-child transmission: a randomized trial in three African countries.
Sartorius BK, Chersich MF, Mwaura M,  et al
BMC Infect Dis
. 2013 Nov 6;13(1):522.
Abstract

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Low Bone Mineral Density in Korean HIV-Infected Patients: Impact of Abacavir and Zidovudine.
Kim HS, Chin BS, Shin HS.J
Korean Med Sci
. 2013 Jun;28(6):827-32.
Abstract

FULL-TEXT ARTICLE
Risk Factors of Treatment-Limiting Anemia after Substitution of Zidovudine for Stavudine in HIV-Infected Adult Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment.
Phe T, Thai S, Veng C, et al
PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e60206.
|
Paper

FULL-TEXT ARTICLE
Zidovudine-induced myopathy: A study in Indian patients.
Sagar A, Mohanty AP, Bahal A.
J Neurosci Rural Pract
. 2010 Jul;1(2):63-66.
Paper


Incidence of anaemia among HIV-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy.
Curkendall S, Richardson J, Emons M, et al
 
HIV Med. 2
007 Nov;8(8):483-90.
Abstract 
 

Rapid development of anemia in a HIV-positive patient with alpha-thalassemia after zidovudine therapy
Altinbaş A, Ozkaya G, Bykaşik Y, Unal S.

Mikrobiyol Bul.
2007 Jul;41(3):473-6
Abstract 
 
Zidovudine use but not weight-based ribavirin dosing impacts anaemia during HCV treatment in HIV-infected persons.
Alvarez D, Dieterich DT, Brau N, et al 
J Viral Hepat.
2006 Oct;13(10):683-9
Abstract 
 
FULL-TEXT PDF ARTICLE
A prospective study of hearing changes after beginning zidovudine or didanosine in HIV-1 treatment-naive people.
Schouten JT, Lockhart DW, Rees TS, et al;
BMC Infect Dis. 2006 Feb 20;6(1):28
Paper

Assessment of Adipokine Expression and Mitochondrial Toxicity in HIV Patients With Lipoatrophy on Stavudine- and Zidovudine-Containing Regimens.
Jones SP, Qazi N, Morelese J, et al 
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr
. 2005 Dec 15;40(5):565-572.
Abstract
 

Zidovudine-induced diaphragmatic contractile dysfunction: Impact of an antioxidant diet.
Wheeler S, Maxwell-Bawden A, Herb RA, et al 
Respirology. 2005 Mar;10(2):171-6.

Abstract
 
AZT induces oxidative damage to cardiac mitochondria: Protective effect of vitamins C and E.
Garcia de la Asuncion J, L Del Olmo M, et al    
Life Sci.
2004 Nov 19;76(1):47-56
Abstract
 
Dilated cardiomyopathy in an adult human immunodeficiency virus type 1-positive patient treated with a zidovudine-containing antiretroviral regimen.
Tanuma J, Ishizaki A, Gatanaga H, et al 
 
Clin Infect Dis.
2003 Oct 1;37(7):e109-11.
Abstract

Zidovudine-related anemia with reticulocytosis.
Koduri PR, Parekh S.
Ann Hematol 2003 Mar;82(3):184-5
Abstract

Azidothymidine causes functional and structural destruction of mitochondria, glutathione deficiency and HIV-1 promoter sensitization.
Yamaguchi T, Katoh I, Kurata S. et al.
Eur J Biochem 2002 Jun;269(11):2782 -8
Abstract

 

Adult/Adolescent Indications
       

 
Mean Corpuscular Volume as a Marker for Adherence to Zidovudine-Containing Therapy in HIV-Infected Adults.
Mugisha JO, Donegan K, Fidler S, et al
Open AIDS J
. 2012;6:45-52.
Abstract

Comparative outcomes of tenofovir- and zidovdine-based antiretroviral therapy regimens in Lusaka, Zambia.
Moyo C, Schuttner L, Mulenga LB, et al
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Aug 18
Abstract

Response to Zidovudine/Didanosine-Containing Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Adults in Botswana: Two-Year Outcomes from a Randomized Clinical Trial.
Bussmann H, Wester CW, Thomas A, et al 
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Mar 11

Abstract

Efficacy of Zidovudine compared to Stavudine, both in combination with  Lamivudine and indinavir, in human immunodeficiency virus-infected nucleoside-experienced patients with no prior exposure to Lamivudine, Stavudine, or protease inhibitors (novavir trial).
Joly V, Flandre P, Meiffredy V, Brun-Vezinet F, et al.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002 Jun;46(6):1906-13
Abstract 

FULL-TEXT ARTICLE
The Triple Combination Indinavir-Zidovudine-Lamivudine Is Highly Synergistic
Snyder S, D'Argenio  DZ, Weislow O, et al.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000Apr;44(4):1051-1058
Paper

FULL-TEXT ARTICLE
Multiple-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Abacavir Alone and in  Combination with Zidovudine in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults 
McDowell JA, Lou Y, Symonds WS, Stein DS.

Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2000 44: 2061-2067
Paper

 

Therapeutic Strategies
       

Intensification Therapy
 
  Intensification of a Failing Regimen with Zidovudine May Cause Sustained Virological
Suppression in the Presence of Resensitising Mutations Including K65R.
Stephan C, Dauer B, Bickel M,  et al
J Infect
. 2010 Jun 19
Abstract 

Lipodystrophy Syndrome Strategies
 

 
Increased Adipocyte Apoptosis in Lipoatrophy Improves Within 48 Weeks of Switching Patient Therapy From Stavudine to Abacavir or Zidovudine.
Cherry CL, Lal L, Thompson KA, et al   
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Mar 1;38(3):263-267.
Abstract 
 
Improvements in lipoatrophy, mitochondrial DNA levels and fat apoptosis after replacing stavudine with abacavir or zidovudine.
McComsey GA, Paulsen DM, Lonergan JT 
AIDS. 2005 Jan 3;19(1I
):15-23.
Abstract 

Lack of Recurrence of Hyperlactatemia in HIV-Infected Patients Switched From Stavudine to Abacavir or Zidovudine.
For the ESS40010 (TARHEEL) Study Team.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Aug 1;36(4):935-942.
Abstract 

Improvement in lipoatrophy associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients switched from stavudine to abacavir or zidovudine: the results of the TARHEEL study.
McComsey GA, Ward DJ, Hessenthaler SM, et al.  
Clin Infect Dis.
2004 Jan 15;38(2):263-70

A
bstract 
 

HIV/HCV Coinfection
 
  Zidovudine use but not weight-based ribavirin dosing impacts anaemia during HCV treatment in HIV-infected persons.
Alvarez D, Dieterich DT, Brau N, et al
 
J Viral Hepat.
2006 Oct;13(10):683-9
Abstract 
 
Miscellaneous
 
  Zidovudine, an anti-viral drug, resensitizes gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine by inhibition of the Akt-GSK3β-Snail pathway.
Namba T, Kodama R, Moritomo S,  et al
Cell Death Dis. 2015 Jun 25;6:e1795
A
bstract 

Treatment of HIV-Related Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma with AZT High Dose, HAART, Interleukin-2 and Foscarnet in Three Patients.
Marretta L, Stocker H, Drauz D, et al
Eur J Med Res
. 2011 May 12;16(5):197-205
Abstract 

High-dose zidovudine plus valganciclovir for Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus-associated multicentric Castleman disease: a pilot study of virus-activated cytotoxic therapy.
Uldrick TS, Polizzotto MN, Aleman K, et al
Blood
. 2011 Apr 12.

Abstract 


Pharmacoeconomics
       

  Cost Estimation of First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy with Zidovudine/Stavudine as the Nucleoside Backbone in India: A Pilot Study.
Thuppal SV, Karthik R, Abraham OC,  et al
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2013 Sep 11.
Abstract 

Impact of zidovudine-based triple combination therapy on an AIDS drug assistance program.
Mauskopf JA, Tolson JM, Simpson KN
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2000 Apr1;23(4):302-13
A
bstract 


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